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Fallacies and Arguments
Ad hominem arguments depend on delegitimizing the person who is advancing the counter-argument. Of course, who or where the information is coming from has some weight, based on inductive reasoning. If Joe is known to have no memory for history, he should probably not be believed immediately if he tells you something about history, but that does not mean his information should always be ignored. Even the little boy who cried wolf was finally telling the truth.
Ad hominem - Ad hominem attacks or arguments are based on the premise that the argument is wrong because the person advancing it is discredited. Often, they are introduced at a stage where logic is no longer relevant, and are just expressive of emotion, and cannot be distinguished from Personal Attack. Ad hominem attacks are usually the resort of those who have lost the argument. They have no arguments left, so they discredit you as a "Zionist," "reactionary" "Nazi" etc. If they had not lost the argument before they made these rude claims, they should fairly be considered to have lost it after they engaged in ad hominem attacks.
Ad Hominem Tu Quoque - Just because an expert doesn't follow their own rules, doesn't mean the rules are wrong. Just because your doctor smokes, that doesn't mean he is lying about the dangers of smoking. However, while this may apply to matters of fact, it is hard to see how it can be applied to moral judgements or legal judgements that are supposed to be applicable to everyone equally.
Circumstantial Ad Hominem - This is disqualifying an argument because the person presenting it has a vested interest in one side. "You are just saying it is so because you are a man," "You are just saying it is so because you are a Zionist." Of course one should always consider the source, but you cannot discount a report just because it appears in a newspaper of the "wrong" side, or comes from a person who is on the "wrong" side in the conflict.
Genetic Fallacy - A claim that the idea is wrong because the origin of the idea is wrong, similar to Ad Hominem arguments. Examples relevant to the Middle East: The Mufti of Jerusalem claimed rights for the Arabs of Palestine, but the Mufti was a Nazi, therefore the claim is invalid. Evangelical Christians support the state of Israel. We don't agree with their views in other matters, so Christian support of Israel must be wrong.
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MidEastWeb History of Israel Palestine and the Middle East Conflict conflict
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Zionism Definition and Brief History A balanced article that covers the definitions and history of Zionism as well as opposition to Zionism and criticisms by Arabs, Jewish antiZionists.
Labor Zionism History and Critique Contribution of Labor Zionism to the creation of the Jewish state, and problems of Labor Zionism in a changing reality.
Concise Guide to IsraeliZionist CyberSpace
Israel-Palestina (Dutch) Middle East Conflict, Israel, Palestine,Zionism... Israël-Palestina Informatie gids Israël, Palestijnen en Midden-Oosten conflict... Israeli-Palestinian conflict from a European perspective Dutch and English.
English Israel-Palestine.info Guide to the Middle East Conflict (Peace, Zionism, antiSemitism ...)
Active Zionism A Zionist advocacy site with many useful links
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