Anti-Zionism - 1. Any of several ideologies opposed to the concept that the Jews are a people and deserve self-determination in their own homeland, on any of the following grounds:
a-Orthodox Jewish anti-Zionists - believe that the return to Zion must be implemented only by the Messiah.
b-Reform Jewish anti-Zionists - believed that the Jews are no longer a nation. This belief eventually was stricken from reform Judaism, which became supportive of the Zionist movement. If the Jews are only members of a religion, according to this logic, they should not have a separate state.
c-Arab and Palestinian anti-Zionists - Are primarily opposed to Zionism because they claim Palestine for the Arabs. Their arguments included racist claims about Jews from very early in the history of Jewish settlement:
The Jews have been amongst the most active advocates of destruction in many lands... It is well known that the disintegration of Russia was wholly or in great part brought about by the Jews, and a large proportion of the defeat of Germany and Austria must also be put at their door. (Musa Khazem El Husseini to Winston Churchill)
It is impossible for us to make an understanding with them or or even to live with them... Their history and all their past proves that it is impossible to live with them. In all the countries where they are at present they are not wanted... because they always arrive to suck the blood of everybody... (Aref Dahani, testimony to the King-Crane Commission)
d-Marxist anti-Zionism - Originally based on the notions of Marx regarding Judaism as a caste, Marxist anti-Zionism merged with Soviet anti-Semitism in the 1960s and developed the doctrine that Zionism is a neo-colonialist movement. Later radical formulations include the slogan "Zionism is racism."
Anti-Zionism often deliberately confounds Zionist extremist ideology with all of Zionism, claiming that "Zionism" aims to dispossess the Arabs of all of Palestine and expand the borders of Israel indefinitely.
2 - Anti-Semitism - In some cases at least, "anti-Zionism" is clearly a euphemism for anti-Semitism or "Judeophobia" or is motivated by it. For example, the Hamas charter claims that the "Zionists" were responsible for the French Revolution. Since the revolution occurred before the foundation of Zionism, the reference is clearly to Jews. In other cases, it is clear that anti-Semitic slogans were borrowed and transposed to "Zionism," as for example, "The 'Zionists' control the government," "the 'Zionists' control the media," 'Zionists' have too much power in our country. In other cases, Zionism is confounded with the anti-Semitic forgery, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and it is claimed that the Protocols were the resolutions of the first Zionist congress.
Anti-Zionists dispute the claim that they are anti-Semites, claiming that they voicing "legitimate" criticisms of Israel. However, their arguments are often redolent of racist claims about Jews, and their "criticism" is based on opposition in principle to the idea of a Jewish state, rather than opposition to specific actions or policies of the Israeli government.
Synonyms and alternate spellings:
Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:
'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.
ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."
u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.
a- sounded like a in arm
ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.
'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.
o - close to the French o as in homme.
th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.
q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.
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