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Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary
Arab Legion (Jordan Legion)   Definition

Arab Legion -- Armed forces of Transjordan, and subsequently of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (as the Trans-Jordan Legion and then the Jordan Legion). The legion was commanded by a British officer, John Bagot Glubb (Glubb Pasha) and included many other British officers. Glubb retired in 1956. The Legion was the most efficient Arab fighting force for a long time. In 1948 it was comparatively well equipped and trained and proved a formidable adversary to the Haganah in Gush Etzion and to the IDF in Jerusalem and Latrun. The Legion played a very minor part in the suppression of the pro-Axis coup in Iraq, that was instigated by Haj Amin el Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem.

Synonyms and alternate spellings: Jordan Legion, Trans-Jordan Legion)

Further Information: See  The Iraq Pro-Axis Coup of the Grand Mufti, Haj Amin el Husseini and the Farhud The battles of Gush Etzion and the Massacre at Kfar Etzion  Lessons of the battles of Latrun 

Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:

'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.

ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."

u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.

a- sounded like a in arm

ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.

'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.

o - close to the French o as in homme.

th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.

q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.

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