Gdud Ha'avodah - (Hebrew meaning The Work Battalion - Full name ' Gdud Ha'avoda vehahagan Al Shem Yosef Trumpeldor - The Joseph Trumpeldor work and defense battalion ). A Zionist- socialist work group founded August 8, 1920. Its three goals were labor, settlement and defense. All income was pooled. The "defense" part of the name was dropped probably out of justified fears of incurring the wrath of the British authorities. The G'dud Ha'avodah was named for Joseph Trumpeldor who had recent fallen at Tel Hai, and included many of his followers who had come on Aliya from the Crimea. The 80 original members were joined by hundreds of others, totaling about 2,500. In 1925, at its peak, it numbered over 650. Members included Yitzhak Sadeh, Israel Shochat and Manya Shochat The battalion was open to everyone, and workers joined to learn a trained and often left to work for the Solel Boneh construction company of the Histadrut. The Gdud Avodah founded several Kibbutzim including Kfar Giladi in the Galilee, Ramat Rachel near Jerusalem, Tel Yosef and Ein Harod. Gdud Haavoda members took part in building other settlements as well and worked in paving roads, swamp drainage, construction, agriculture and other tasks.
The Histadrut trade federation, which originally saw the Gdud Haavodah as part of itself, eventually saw in it a competitor for control of the working class.
In 1923 the Gdud Haavodah split on ideological grounds. The leftist faction wanted immediate implementation of socialism, whereas the right faction was more oriented to Zionist pioneering. This caused the Ein Harod and Tel Yosef Kibbutzim to split.
An extreme leftist communist faction soon split from the leftist faction. In December 1926, this group was expelled. Some of them returned to Russia, where they formed a commune called Via Nova that was liquidated eventually in the Stalinist purges.
Gdud Haavodah ceased operations in 1927. In 1929, Tel Yosef, Kfar Giladi-Tel Chai and Ramat Rachel formed the Kibbutz Hameuchad movement and Gdud Ha'avodah was terminated.
Synonyms and alternate spellings: Gedud Ha'avoda, Gdud Haavodah
Further Information: (in Hebrew) - Gdud Ha'avoda in the Kibbutz Lexicon
Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:
'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.
ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."
u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.
a- sounded like a in arm
ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.
'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.
o - close to the French o as in homme.
th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.
q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.
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