Zionism - Israeli Flag

Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary
Hashomer  Definition

Zionism maps history biography definitions e-Zion about issues photos documents links contact

Hashomer - (Hebrew) ("The Guard") Jewish defense organization in Palestine organized 1909, ceased to operate after founding of the Haganah in 1920. The purpose of Hashomer was to provide guard services for Jewish settlements, freeing Jewish communities from dependence upon foreign consulates and Arab watchmen for their security. Hashomer was originated by socialist Zionists, mostly members of Poalei Tziyon, including Israel Shochat, Manya Shochat, Yitzhak Ben Zvi and Rachel Yanaait, who had earlier formed a small secret guard society called Bar Giora, which guarded only the Sejera commune (now Illanit) and Mesha (now Kfar Tavor). Bar Giora had been founded by Alexander Zeid and Yitzhak Ben Zvi among others. Hashomer was successful in providing defense for settlements throughout the country. It aroused the ire of Arab watchmen who lost their jobs and of pilferers, and antagonized the Arab population by retaliatory raids. During World War I many of its members were exiled by the Turkish government because they were enemy (Russian) nationals. When the Turks caught Yosef Lishanski of the NILI group he told all he knew, implicating 12 members of Hashomer. The group nonetheless survived. In 1920 it was decided to organize the Haganah, a much broader-based group, to cope with new defense challenges and needs of the growing community.


Synonyms and alternate spellings:

Further Information:


Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:

'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.

ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."

u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.

a- sounded like a in arm

ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.

'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.

o - close to the French o as in homme.

th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.

q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.


Definitions of Zionism  General History of Zionism and the Creation of Israel   History of Israel and Zionism   Historical Source Documents of Israel and Zionism

Back to main page: http://www.zionism-israel.com Zionism and Israel Information Center

This site is a part of the Zionism and Israel on the Web Project

Copyright

This work and individual entries are copyright 2005 by Ami Isseroff and Zionism and Israel Information Center and may not reproduced in any form without permission unless explicitly noted otherwise. Individual entries may be cited with credit to The Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Zionism and Israel

 

ZioNation - Zionism-Israel Web Log    Zionism & Israel News  Israel: like this, as if Bible Bible Quotes History of Zionism Zionism FAQ Zionism Israel Center Maps of Israel Jew Israel Advocacy  Zionism and its Impact Israel Christian Zionism Site Map