Jewish Colonization Association (JCA or ICA) - Organization founded in 1891 by the Baron De Hirsch, to assist Jewish emigration from countries of persecution or depressed economies to countries of opportunity such as Ottoman Palestine and Argentina. In addition to helping settlements in Palestine, the ICA funded ventures in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the USA, Cyprus and Turkey, and provided loans and assistance to Jewish communities in Galicia and Rumania. In North America, it founded, the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society, and helped Jewish farmers in Woodbine N.Y. and elsewhere.
Regarding its activities in Palestine, the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1911 had this to say:
Aside from the old colonies of Baron Edmond de Rothschild, of which it has assumed the management, the Jewish Colonization Association has contributed to the consolidation of the colonies Wadi el-Ḥanin, Rehoboth, Katra (Gadara), Hederah, and Mishmar ha-Yarden, and in the district of Tiberias it has exploited an agricultural tract, known as "Sajara," which is cultivated exclusively by Jewish laborers. Several of these laborers have also been established as petty farmers. In order to increase the number of merchants and artisans in Jerusalem the association has established the following: a silk-and woolen-mill for purposes of instruction, employing about one hundred persons; a knitting machine establishment, furnishing machines to poor families, which pay in monthly instalments; a dyeing establishment, the complement of the weaving-mill; a working men's quarter, in which artisans, laborers, and small traders may purchase small houses for a moderate sum; a bank that loans money on security, with moderate interest, to artisans, laborers, manufacturers, and small shopkeepers; schools for teaching girls to make lace and also nets for the hair.
Hirsch founded the ICA after his only son, Lucien died, with the nominal participation of the Baron Rothschild and others. Hirsch was not a Zionist and did not believe colonization of Palestine was practical. However, he felt that Jews were persecuted because they were too unlike their neighbors, and that they would to well to engage in agriculture in order to become more like others.
Synonyms and alternate spellings: ICA, JCA
Further Information: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=271&letter=J
Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:
'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.
ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."
u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.
a- sounded like a in arm
ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.
'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.
o - close to the French o as in homme.
th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.
q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.
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