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Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary

Proto-Zionists

Proto-Zionists - This term describes all those who advocated a restoration of the Jews before the foundation of political Zionism in the late 19th century. It includes such figures as Rabbi Yehudah Alkalai and Rabbi Tzvi Hirsh Kalischer. Moses Hess, Leon Pinsker, the BILU organization, Chovevei Tzion and others who advocated the return of the Jews to Israel and carried it out. Inasmuch as some Jews had been settling in the land of Israel almost continuously since the exile, the term could be applied to medieval figures like Yehuda Halevi and the false Messiah Shabettai Tzvi, as well as to early Christian Zionists, but it is usually restricted to nineteenth century figures. Mordecai Manual Noah was a noted American proto-Zionist.


Synonyms and alternate spellings:

Further Information: See Zionism


Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:

'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.

ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."

u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.

a- sounded like a in arm

ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.

'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.

o - close to the French o as in homme.

th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.

q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.


Definitions of Zionism  General History of Zionism and the Creation of Israel   History of Israel and Zionism   Historical Source Documents of Israel and Zionism

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This work and individual entries are copyright 2005-9 by Ami Isseroff and Zionism and Israel Information Center and may not reproduced in any form without permission unless explicitly noted otherwise. Individual entries may be cited with credit to The Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Zionism and Israel

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