Ratz - The Ratz or Civil Rights Movement party was established by MK Shulamit Aloni in 1973, before the
elections for the Eighth Knesset, and was reprented in the Eighth to Twelfth (1992) Knesset. Ratz focused on the issues
of civil rights, separation of religion and state, reform of the electoral system, and ending the occupation of the
Golan, West Bank and Gaza, occupied by Israel in 1967. For a brief period during the Eighth Knesset,
changed its name to Ya'ad. In the course of the Eleventh Knesset the CRM became part of the
Labor Alignment for tactical reasons, but
resumed its independence toward the elections to the Twelfth Knesset. Toward the end of the Twelfth Knesset (1992) Ratz
Shinui in forming the
Meretz parliamentary group, and in February 1997,
after Meretz became a party, ceased to exist as an independent party.
Synonyms and alternate spellings:
Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:
'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.
ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."
u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.
a- sounded like a in arm
ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.
'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.
o - close to the French o as in homme.
th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.
q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.
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