Synthetic Zionism - Term coined by Chaim Weizmann to describe a fusion of political goals of getting a charter for a Jewish homeland with practical goals of Jewish settlement in the land of Israel. Synthetic Zionism is often considered to have been a creation of the Helsingfors Program, the program adopted at the 1906 congress of Russian Zionists, held in Helsinki, Finland. In fact, the ideas had been advanced by Menachem Ussishkin in a 1904 pamphlet, "Our Program."
It was advanced at the 8th Zionist Congress in 1907 by Chaim Weizmann, and favored by Leo Motzkin as well. The heart of the idea was that Jewish settlement would make it more likely and more feasible for Jews to get a political charter for a national home in Palestine, and that all different forms of Zionist activity: political, cultural and practical (settlement) should be pursued together. This transformed the Zionist movement, which under Theodor Herzl's leadership had been almost exclusively oriented toward a political solution. This vision proved exactly correct. Winston Churchill, when he supported Zionism, pointed to the achievements of Zionists in Palestine, and the borders of the future Jewish state were drawn to include the areas that Zionism had succeeded in settling by 1947.
Synonyms and alternate spellings:
Further Information:Political Zionism Practical Zionism, Helsingfors Program
Hebrew/Arabic pronunciation and transliteration conventions:
'H - ('het) a guttural sound made deep in the throat. To Western ears it may sound like the "ch" in loch. In Arabic there are several letters that have similar sounds. Examples: 'hanukah, 'hamas, 'haredi. Formerly, this sound was often represented by ch, especially in German transliterations of Hebrew. Thus, 'hanukah is often rendered as Chanuka for example.
ch - (chaf) a sound like "ch" in loch or the Russian Kh as in Khruschev or German Ach, made by putting the tongue against the roof of the mouth. In Hebrew, a chaf can never occur at the beginning of a word. At the beginning of a word, it has a dot in it and is pronounced "Kaf."
u - usually between oo as in spoon and u as in put.
a- sounded like a in arm
ah- used to represent an a sound made by the letter hey at the end of a word. It is the same sound as a. Haganah and Hagana are alternative acceptable transliterations.
'a-notation used for Hebrew and Arabic ayin, a guttural ah sound.
o - close to the French o as in homme.
th - (taf without a dot) - Th was formerly used to transliterate the Hebrew taf sound for taf without a dot. However in modern Hebrew there is no detectable difference in standard pronunciation of taf with or without a dot, and therefore Histadruth and Histadrut, Rehovoth and Rehovot are all acceptable.
q- (quf) - In transliteration of Hebrew and Arabic, it is best to consistently use the letter q for the quf, to avoid confusion with similar sounding words that might be spelled with a kaf, which should be transliterated as K. Thus, Hatiqva is preferable to Hatikva for example.
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